Fine Motor Developmental Delay and Associated Factors among Children Aged 3-5 Years in Surabaya


  • Elly Dwi Masita UNUSA
  • Siti Maimunah Universitas Nahdlatul Ulama Surabaya



Developmental Delay, Fine Motor, Children, 3-5 years old


In a preliminary study conducted in March 2018, 60% of children aged 3-5 years had a fine motor developmental delay. This research aims to determine the correlation between birth order, birth spacing, child abuse, religious values, parents' perceptions, educational level, and fine motor developmental delay among children aged 3-5 years. This research was a quantitative analytic with a cross-sectional approach. Sampling used the rule of thumb. Test the analysis applied multiple linear regression with p <0.05. Results: Birth spacing, religious values, parents' perceptions correlated positively with the fine motor developmental delay. While birth order had a negative correlation with fine motor development. There was no association between child abuse, educational level, and the development of fine motor in children.  Conclusion: there was a correlation between birth order, birth spacing, religious values, parents' perceptions, and fine motor development among children.

Author Biography

Elly Dwi Masita, UNUSA

Elly Dwi Masita, SST.,MPH


Bassey, B. (2017). Undergraduates’ view of lecturers’ age as a factor in their teaching effectiveness. Global Journal of Social Sciences, 15(1), 1.

Bejenaru, A., & Rusu, H. (2010). Factors Influencing School Success in Rural Romania: a Case Study Based on Data Collected With the School Success Profile Instrument. Studia Universitatis Babes-Bolyai - Sociologia, 55(1), 71–88.

Bonelli, R. M., & Koenig, H. G. (2013). Mental Disorders, Religion and Spirituality 1990 to 2010: A Systematic Evidence-Based Review. Journal of Religion and Health, 52(2), 657–673.

Booth, A. L., & Kee, H. J. (2009). Birth order matters: the effect of family size and birth order on educational attainment. Journal of Population Economics, 22(2), 367–397.

Brenøe, A. A., & Molitor, R. (2018). Birth order and health of newborns: What can we learn from Danish registry data? Journal of Population Economics, 31(2), 363–395.

Cameron, C. E., Brock, L. L., Murrah, W. M., Bell, L. H., Worzalla, S. L., Grissmer, D., & Morrison, F. J. (2012). Fine motor skills and executive function both contribute to kindergarten achievement. Child Development, Vol. 83, pp. 1229–1244.

Cubaka, V. K., Schriver, M., Cotton, P., & Nyirazinyoye, L. (2018). Providers ’ perceptions of communication with patients in primary healthcare in Rwanda. 1–17.

Dunkel, C. S., Harbke, C. R., & Papini, D. T. (2009). Direct and indirect effects of birth order on personality and identity. The Journal of Genetic Psychology: Research and Theory on Human Development, 170(2), 159–175.

Eshelman, L., & Levendosky, A. A. (2012). Based on Type of Abuse. Violence and Victim, 27(2), 215–228.

Gentier, I., D’Hondt, E., Shultz, S., Deforche, B., Augustijn, M., Hoorne, S., … Lenoir, M. (2013). Fine and gross motor skills differ between healthy-weight and obese children. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 34(11), 4043–4051.

Grissmer, D., Grimm, K. J., Aiyer, S. M., Murrah, W. M., & Steele, J. S. (2010). Fine motor skills and early comprehension of the world: Two new school readiness indicators. Developmental Psychology, 46(5), 1008–1017.

Hartinger, S. M., Lanata, C. F., Hattendorf, J., Wolf, J., Gil, A. I., Obando, M. O., … Mäusezahl, D. (2017). Impact of a child stimulation intervention on early child development in rural Peru : a cluster randomised trial using a reciprocal control design. 217–224.

Jacobs, E., Miller, Æ. L. C., & Tirella, Æ. L. G. (2010). Developmental and Behavioral Performance of Internationally Adopted Preschoolers : A Pilot Study. 15–29.

Kanazawa, S. (2012). Intelligence, Birth Order, and Family Size. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 38(9), 1157–1164.

Keenan, H. T., & Campbell, K. A. (2015). Three models of child abuse consultations: A qualitative study of inpatient child abuse consultation notes. Child Abuse and Neglect, 43, 53–60.

Liel, C., Meinck, F., Steinert, J. I., Kindler, H., Lang, K., & Eickhorst, A. (2019). Is the Brief Child Abuse Potential Inventory (BCAPI) a valid measure of child abuse potential among mothers and fathers of young children in Germany? Child Abuse and Neglect, 88(October 2018), 432–444.

Lin, Q., Luo, J., Wu, Z., Shen, F., & Sun, Z. (2015). Characterization of fine motor development: Dynamic analysis of children’s drawing movements. Human Movement Science, 40, 163–175.

Lu, J., & Gao, Q. (2017). Faith and Happiness in China: Roles of Religious Identity, Beliefs, and Practice. Social Indicators Research, 132(1), 273–290.

Matsuyama, A., Karama, M., Tanaka, J., & Kaneko, S. (2013). Perceptions of caregivers about health and nutritional problems and feeding practices of infants : a qualitative study on exclusive breast-feeding in Kwale , Kenya. 1–13.

McGlashan, H. L., Blanchard, C. C. V., Nicole, J. S., Lee, R., French, B., & Sycamore, N. J. (2017). Improvement in children’s fine motor skills following a computerized typing intervention. Human Movement Science, 56(October), 29–36.

Mohebi, S., Parham, M., Sharifirad, G., & Gharlipour, Z. (2018). Social Support and Self ‑ Care Behavior Study. Journal of Education and Health Promotion, 1–6.

Norström, P. (2015). Knowing How, Knowing That, Knowing Technology. Philosophy and Technology, 28(4), 553–565.

Oberer, N., Gashaj, V., & Roebers, C. M. (2017). Motor skills in kindergarten: Internal structure, cognitive correlates and relationships to background variables. Human Movement Science, 52, 170–180.

Olson, J. R., Marshall, J. P., Goddard, H. W., & Schramm, D. G. (2015). Shared Religious Beliefs, Prayer, and Forgiveness as Predictors of Marital Satisfaction. Family Relations, 64(4), 519–533.

Pitchford, N. J., Papini, C., Outhwaite, L. A., & Gulliford, A. (2016). Fine Motor Skills Predict Maths Ability Better than They Predict Reading Ability in the Early Primary School Years. 7(May), 1–17.

Sigmundsson, H., & Stensdotter, A. (2013). Individual Differences in Motor Timing and Its Relation to Cognitive and Fine Motor Skills. 8(7).

Spera, C., Wentzel, K. R., & Matto, H. C. (2009). Parental aspirations for their children’s educational attainment: Relations to ethnicity, parental education, children’s academic performance, and parental perceptions of school climate. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 38(8), 1140–1152.

Suggate, S., Pufke, E., & Stoeger, H. (2019). Children’s fine motor skills in kindergarten predict reading in grade 1. Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 47, 248–258.

Villar, O. A. E., Montañez-alvarado, P., Gutiérrez-vega, M., Carrillo-saucedo, I. C., Gurrola-peña, G. M., Ruvalcaba-romero, N. A., … Ochoa-alcaraz, S. G. (2017). Factor structure and internal reliability of an exercise health belief model scale in a Mexican population. 1–10.

Zare, M., & Ghodsbin, F. (2016). O riginal A rticle The Effect of Health Belief Model-Based Education on Knowledge and Prostate Cancer Screening Behaviors : A Randomized Controlled Trial. 4(1), 57–68.